Rabu, 13 Januari 2010

biology paper


 
biochemical role of hormonal women


Produced by: Sholeh line 29 blocks E
Class / No: 3 / c
NIM: 342008136


Supervising professor: Dra.kholillah


Prodi: biology








INTRODUCTION




Thank God I prayed to God for YME has its blessings and grace bestows on me, so I can sort my paper well, entitled "THE ROLE OF HORMONES FEMALE biochemistry". I am grateful to:
1 Drs. Triman Yuniarso M, PD as supervisor
2 Family and friends who always support me
Life without work is a life without avail. Similarly the task of drafting this paper. For that I expect criticism and suggestions that are improvements. In this paper the task terselesainya I apologize if there are errors in the manufacture of paper ini.Semoga this paper can be useful for me and the reader.



Authored



Muhammad Sholeh


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE ------------------------------------------------- i
------------------------------- FOREWORD ii
------------------------------------------ TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
RUMUSAN PROBLEMS
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
BABIII
CLOSING
Conclusions
REFERENCES


HORMONE-HORMONE femininity




MAIN-MAIN
Female hormones are physiologically is under the influence Folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), which controlled parts of the brain called Hipofise. Important female hormones are estrogen and progesterone hormone that acts as a sexual characteristic primary and secondary. Both these hormones are very important for every woman and women need to know about how the function of these hormones.
Read more
Estrogen (estradiol, Oestrone and Oestriol) working in the mucosa of the uterus (endometrium) by pushing it to grow and thicken. This proliferation process took place in the first 2 weeks of Menstrual cycle and serves to accommodate the fertilized egg.
Progesterone, along with estrogen is important for the cooking and the release of an egg follicle. Ovulation was some days after the LH peak levels. Follicles grow again into a yellow body (corpus luteum), which immediately began to form progesterone. Both female hormone also plays an important role in fertilization and egg transport through the Fallopian-egg into the uterus and in endometrium penyarangannya (nidatio implantation).
Essential functions of progesterone stimulate the endometrium is to
further grow and secrete and accumulate GISI substances for the development of eggs into fetuses. This secretion phase lasted throughout the week to 3 of the cycle. In addition these hormones serve to maintain pregnancy during the first 6-8 weeks of pregnancy because of cessation of progesterone production can lead to endometrial danabortus.khasiat release is called the (pro) gestagen.


Estrogen
Estradiol, and Oestriol Oestrone a natural estrogen that is sometimes abbreviated as each of E2, E3, according to the number of E1dan-OH group of the molecule. Estrogen Estadiol has the strongest power in the 2-5 times more active than the other two hormones. Estrogen is produced primarily by ovaria of 2-25 mcg a day during the first week until the middle of 25-100 mcg Menstrual cycle. Smaller amounts are also in the form of the follicle and corpus luteum child's testes and kidney (male and female). The placenta formed it in abundance, up to 30 mg a day at 9 months into the pregnancy. After menopause the production dropped to 5-10 mcg a day. Sintesanya occur under the influence of FSH with acetate and cholesterol as the base material and Testosterone as a Precursor, where c-AMP also plays an important role. There are times when the conversion of testosterone Estradiol blocked, resulting in the occurrence of hirsutism increased androgen levels.


Kinetic oral and dermal estrogen diabsopsi well and quickly, as well as in the case of FPE vaginal.tetapi so high that BA is low and less oral sex aktif.seperti other hormone is bound to hormone-transport protein SHBG (sex hormone binding globuline) . In the heart of this hormone altered metabol rapidly become less active, among others, estriolus entero hepatis.ester estradiol and inativasinya slower estrogennonsteriida in the liver and other tissues, the activity is stronger than in estradiol excretion lasted through sedeai konyugat Glukuronidanya slope.


Physiology and pharmacology, efficacy Estrogen name comes from hormone-working power of this hormone that causes ostri in animals, namely the desire bersenggam In humans the effects of estrogen most important are as follows.
a. feminizing effects (lat. femina = women that cause genital characteristics of primary and secondary female. Especially the vagina is very sensitive to estrogen, which, among other causes epitelnya.Kekurangan same Pertandukan seemed after menopause can lead to atrophy and inflammation mukosanya (vagitis).
b. uterine endometrial proliferation and estrogen to stimulate uterine growth can grow large (hyperplasia), besides that it also generates proliferasi.dari phase endometrium
c. of menstruation. Blood estrogen levels must exceed a certain threshold value in order to maintain the phase of proliferation and secretion of the endometrial phase.
d. of lactation, estrogen stimulates the milk-ejection by inhibiting sidopamin product (= PIF, prolactin inhibiting FACTOR) to increase prolactin secretion.
e. anti-ovulatory effect, based on the anti gonadropnya, estrogen and progesterone inhibits above a certain level of GnRH in the hypothalamus and FSH / LH in the pituitary by means of feed back the result is negative.salah SATUI tercegahnya ovulation.
f. anabol effect, the weaker of the androgen.efek penutu [epifise long as effective as estrogen stimulates androgen synthesis of protein-carrier of cortisol and thyroxine.
g. androgen.malaui Hipofise anti-hormone, female hormone levels above a certain decrease of androgen secretion, so the effect is weakened.
h. kolesterol.Estrogen raise levels of HDL cholesterol and slightly lower levels of LDL.
i. salt and water retention, especially at rather high dose of cycles a second danparuh, pliers cause tension and pain in the breasts. Also udema and increased weight.
j. inhibits the rapid bone loss in the first 5 years of menopause, when used at least 5 years fractura reduced by 50-60%.


Use
Estrogen used in different circumstances and most importantly the

1. substitution therapy for supplying the amount of natural hormone production when insufficient kebutuhan.umpamanya on Hipogonanisme and after the appointment of ovaria (ovariectomi).
2. anti ovulation (anti-pregnancy pill), along with a Progesterone also as the morning-after-piil
3. laktasi.Esterogen pressing as Prostagen and androgen-empowered directly inhibit secretion in primary breast milk.
4. inhibit the growth of girls around the age of 12 years who grew too fast and too high to worry about good handling is a GnRH analog.
5. estrogen in postmenopausal osteoporosis powerless to restore the balance between formation and removal of bone cells that terganggupada osteoporose.
6. prostate cancer (spread) can be diusakan treatment with estrogen (eg fosfestrol) or progestagen (eg megestrol)
7. atrophy and vaginitis (inflammation of the mucous) that can occur after menopause, diobatisecara effectively with local usage, namely vaginal cream with dienestrol or estriol.



Side effects
Estrogen can cause stomach-intestinal disturbances (nausea, anorexia, diarrhea), headache and dizziness as well as at high doses vomiting. Apart from that side effects are more severe and the most important are: fenimisme effect, trombo-embolism, endometrial cancer , irregular bleeding, edema and weight increase.


Contra indications
Estrogen should not be given pda pregnant women, uterine, or cancer and cardiac patients or provide pembuluh.jangan anti pregnant pill since the closure epifise stimulation and penghentisn pertumbuhsn lengthwise.


Antiestrogen substances
Are substances that resist or reduce the effects of androgens esterogen.Dalam broad sense and progesterone are considered as substances antiesterogen.Dikensl two groups of substances with antiesterogen efficacy, namely a weak estrogen and inhibiting the enzyme aromatase.


Individual substances
Ø Esradiol: E2, Progynova, Estaderm TTS
Ø Oestrone: E1, Konyugat esterogan, Pemarin
Ø Oestriol: E3, Sinapause, Ovestine
Ø Dietilbestrol (F.I.): DES, Stilbestrol
Ø clomiphene: doxycycline, profertil
Ø Tamoksiven: nolvadex, tamofen
Ø Aminoglutetimida: orimeten
Ø Anastrozol: arimidex


ZAT-ZAT PROSTAGEN
Progesterone dalah homon other women who formed the corpus luteum, placenta (starting the third month of pregnancy) testes and kidney cortex child (male and female) under the influence of FSH / LH from Hipofise. In contrast levels of progesterone (and estrogen) levels through feedback mechanisms helped to determine the number of secretion of GnRH and Gonadotropins it.
Progesterone induces helpless phase transition from proliferative endometrium (estwerogen influence) to the phase of secretion of nutrients, so that the fertilized egg nest bias and develop into fetuses (implantation). Later on duty to maintain Progesterone pregnancy. Therefore, the Corpus luteum ceased production about 4 months into the pregnancy, the placenta began large-sampai150 at 250 mg a day saaat before delivery.


Characterization
These substances are steroida progesterone synthesis by progesterone activity, but it works spekrum much different from each other all the nutritious substances Progestagen but not all have the effect of gestagen (maintains pregnancy), inhibits ovulation or antiestrogen helpless. Even some of which have new properties, such as the effects of estrogen, although weak. Unlike substances Progesterone is active orally.


Efficacy Farmokologi
· Prostagen Securities. Ie memoersiapkan uterus for implantation of the egg by inducing secretion of the endometrial phase.
· Gestagen effect of maintaining a pregnancy, the two most obvious effect on OH progesterone, didrogesteron and alilestrenol
· Anti ovulation
· Effects of androgens
· Estrogen effect
· Securities termogen


Use


ü To prevensi abortion
ü In the anti-pregnancy pill
ü In menstrual disorders
ü In climacterium
ü In endometriose
ü In endometrial cancer / mammary


Side effects
Prostagen substances can cause sampimg effects such as nausea, drowsiness, dizziness withdrawal bleeding as well as its use dihentikan.Selain showed other effects, especially in high doses, namely:

* Securities virilization in female fetuses when used for long periods with high doses, especially since the work derifat testosterone edema due androgennya.juga remaining salt and water retention.
* Effect on the central high doses suppress all steroida CNS and can cause drowsiness, kelesuhan and depression.
* Disruption can occur, especially liver bile duct obstruction (cholestatis)



Substances anti Progestagen
These substances against progesterone by competitively blocking the road in organ resptornya destination. Abortivum used exclusively as a medical (eg fetal death) on the basis of rescission of the gestagen effects progesterone.Kehamilan progesterone suspended due to endometrial dihambat.yang is known mifrepiston (mifregyne) steroida structure, which with a single dose (600mg) effective for ca 80% when given 6 weeks after the last menstrual bila36-48 hours later followed by Prostagandin therapy, for example dinosproston (prostin E2) results up to 95%. In addition, mifrepiston 10mg (mifegyne) is used as the morning-after-pill (anti pregnant very safe and reliable.

Individual substances

1. Progesterone (FI): Progestine, progestan obtained from cattle ovaria synthesis ayau generated from kolesterol.Resorbsinya atu giosgenin quickly from the gut either, but for large FPE banya little result on average 5%. Therefore these substances are given in parentral.serbuk mikrofin the oil was absorbed through the lymph system and are not experienced in the heart FEP, the orally active (Progestan). The blood is also transported bound SHBG pda, see this substance estradriol.Dalam altered liver into several metabolites, particularly pregnandiol inactive and active hidroprogesteron these substances in the urine as sekresikan through glukoronidanya.
2. Norotisteron: norotindron,-N primolut this nortestosteron Derivatives (1967) efficacious seta suppress ovulation has its weak androgen and estrogen effects are also used antiesterogen.Banyak anti pregnant pill dalm (1-3mg N-acetate), also to delay haid.plasma-t1 / 2 was 5-14 hours. Delayed menstruation dose 5 mg 3 dd started no later than 3 days sebelun maximum period of 14 days: sesuah kur some bleeding after the withdrawal.
3. Alilestrenol: exluton, endrometril, lindiol.ovostat this nortestosteron Derivatives (1961) without the new keto group 3 active after the reformed himself into power noretisteron.Zat has estrogen, and androgen antiesterogen. Lipofil Being and good distribution in organ.plasma1/2- 17 jam.Berkat his gonadotropnya good efficacy linestrenol primarily used in anti-pregnancy pill combination of menstrual disorders and on the mini-pill dose (Mino therapy) 0.5 mg 11dd no interruptions, in combination 0,75-2,5 mg daily cyclically.
4. Desogestrel: morvelon, streroid formula morcilon This is the same substance is a product linestrenol.Zat that in the liver changed into active ketodesogrestel (1981) with the plasma t1 / 2 21 jam.Berdaya strong anti gonadronya suppress ovulation by anti-estrogen berday too strong and weak androgens . Desogrestel mainly used in anti-pregnancy pill combination of the third generation.
5. Tibolon (livial) this nortestosteron Derivatives (1988) has a double bond in lieu padaC 5-10 C 4-5.Berkhasiat progestagen, estrogen and androgen, but all rather lemah.Tidak stimulate the endometrium or mucous epithelium and does not cause vaginal bleeding penarikan.dianjurkan as monotherapy in oral climakterium.Dosis disorders 1dd 2.5 subs 3-6 months.











REFERENCES


RB HALLWORT. Prevention and treatment of post menopausal. Parm world and science 1998,20:198-205
Sambrook.PN in the treatment of post menopausal.N Engl J med 1995; 33:1495-6
HAP Polst et al. Denendicamentause aanpak van Postmenopauzale Genessem bull 1996; 30:99-107.
Grodstein F et al. Post menopausal hormone therapy and mortality N Engl J med1997; 336:1769-75.
Brinton LA et al Post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy Time for a reapraisal N Engl J med 1997; 336:1821-2.


Posted by Sholeh * Rodatul at 09:16 0 comments
Subscribe to: Posts (Atom)
Sumbangkan terjemahan yang lebih baik
Terima kasih telah menyumbangkan saran terjemahan Anda ke Google Terjemahan.
Menyumbangkan terjemahan yang lebih baik:
Produced by: Sholeh line 29 blocks E
Class / No: 3 / c
NIM: 342008136


Supervising professor: Dra.kholillah


Prodi: biology








INTRODUCTION




Thank God I prayed to God for YME has its blessings and grace bestows on me, so I can sort my paper well, entitled "THE ROLE OF HORMONES FEMALE biochemistry". I am grateful to:
1 Drs. Triman Yuniarso M, PD as supervisor
2 Family and friends who always support me
Life without work is a life without avail. Similarly the task of drafting this paper. For that I expect criticism and suggestions that are improvements. In this paper the task terselesainya I apologize if there are errors in the manufacture of paper ini.Semoga this paper can be useful for me and the reader.



Authored



Muhammad Sholeh


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE ------------------------------------------------- i
------------------------------- FOREWORD ii
------------------------------------------ TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
RUMUSAN PROBLEMS
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
BABIII
CLOSING
Conclusions
REFERENCES


HORMONE-HORMONE femininity




MAIN-MAIN
Female hormones are physiologically is under the influence Folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), which controlled parts of the brain called Hipofise. Important female hormones are estrogen and progesterone hormone that acts as a sexual characteristic primary and secondary. Both these hormones are very important for every woman and women need to know about how the function of these hormones.
Read more
Estrogen (estradiol, Oestrone and Oestriol) working in the mucosa of the uterus (endometrium) by pushing it to grow and thicken. This proliferation process took place in the first 2 weeks of Menstrual cycle and serves to accommodate the fertilized egg.
Progesterone, along with estrogen is important for the cooking and the release of an egg follicle. Ovulation was some days after the LH peak levels. Follicles grow again into a yellow body (corpus luteum), which immediately began to form progesterone. Both female hormone also plays an important role in fertilization and egg transport through the Fallopian-egg into the uterus and in endometrium penyarangannya (nidatio implantation).
Essential functions of progesterone stimulate the endometrium is to
further grow and secrete and accumulate GISI substances for the development of eggs into fetuses. This secretion phase lasted throughout the week to 3 of the cycle. In addition these hormones serve to maintain pregnancy during the first 6-8 weeks of pregnancy because of cessation of progesterone production can lead to endometrial danabortus.khasiat release is called the (pro) gestagen.


Estrogen
Estradiol, and Oestriol Oestrone a natural estrogen that is sometimes abbreviated as each of E2, E3, according to the number of E1dan-OH group of the molecule. Estrogen Estadiol has the strongest power in the 2-5 times more active than the other two hormones. Estrogen is produced primarily by ovaria of 2-25 mcg a day during the first week until the middle of 25-100 mcg Menstrual cycle. Smaller amounts are also in the form of the follicle and corpus luteum child's testes and kidney (male and female). The placenta formed it in abundance, up to 30 mg a day at 9 months into the pregnancy. After menopause the production dropped to 5-10 mcg a day. Sintesanya occur under the influence of FSH with acetate and cholesterol as the base material and Testosterone as a Precursor, where c-AMP also plays an important role. There are times when the conversion of testosterone Estradiol blocked, resulting in the occurrence of hirsutism increased androgen levels.


Kinetic oral and dermal estrogen diabsopsi well and quickly, as well as in the case of FPE vaginal.tetapi so high that BA is low and less oral sex aktif.seperti other hormone is bound to hormone-transport protein SHBG (sex hormone binding globuline) . In the heart of this hormone altered metabol rapidly become less active, among others, estriolus entero hepatis.ester estradiol and inativasinya slower estrogennonsteriida in the liver and other tissues, the activity is stronger than in estradiol excretion lasted through sedeai konyugat Glukuronidanya slope.


Physiology and pharmacology, efficacy Estrogen name comes from hormone-working power of this hormone that causes ostri in animals, namely the desire bersenggam In humans the effects of estrogen most important are as follows.
a. feminizing effects (lat. femina = women that cause genital characteristics of primary and secondary female. Especially the vagina is very sensitive to estrogen, which, among other causes epitelnya.Kekurangan same Pertandukan seemed after menopause can lead to atrophy and inflammation mukosanya (vagitis).
b. uterine endometrial proliferation and estrogen to stimulate uterine growth can grow large (hyperplasia), besides that it also generates proliferasi.dari phase endometrium
c. of menstruation. Blood estrogen levels must exceed a certain threshold value in order to maintain the phase of proliferation and secretion of the endometrial phase.
d. of lactation, estrogen stimulates the milk-ejection by inhibiting sidopamin product (= PIF, prolactin inhibiting FACTOR) to increase prolactin secretion.
e. anti-ovulatory effect, based on the anti gonadropnya, estrogen and progesterone inhibits above a certain level of GnRH in the hypothalamus and FSH / LH in the pituitary by means of feed back the result is negative.salah SATUI tercegahnya ovulation.
f. anabol effect, the weaker of the androgen.efek penutu [epifise long as effective as estrogen stimulates androgen synthesis of protein-carrier of cortisol and thyroxine.
g. androgen.malaui Hipofise anti-hormone, female hormone levels above a certain decrease of androgen secretion, so the effect is weakened.
h. kolesterol.Estrogen raise levels of HDL cholesterol and slightly lower levels of LDL.
i. salt and water retention, especially at rather high dose of cycles a second danparuh, pliers cause tension and pain in the breasts. Also udema and increased weight.
j. inhibits the rapid bone loss in the first 5 years of menopause, when used at least 5 years fractura reduced by 50-60%.


Use
Estrogen used in different circumstances and most importantly the

1. substitution therapy for supplying the amount of natural hormone production when insufficient kebutuhan.umpamanya on Hipogonanisme and after the appointment of ovaria (ovariectomi).
2. anti ovulation (anti-pregnancy pill), along with a Progesterone also as the morning-after-piil
3. laktasi.Esterogen pressing as Prostagen and androgen-empowered directly inhibit secretion in primary breast milk.
4. inhibit the growth of girls around the age of 12 years who grew too fast and too high to worry about good handling is a GnRH analog.
5. estrogen in postmenopausal osteoporosis powerless to restore the balance between formation and removal of bone cells that terganggupada osteoporose.
6. prostate cancer (spread) can be diusakan treatment with estrogen (eg fosfestrol) or progestagen (eg megestrol)
7. atrophy and vaginitis (inflammation of the mucous) that can occur after menopause, diobatisecara effectively with local usage, namely vaginal cream with dienestrol or estriol.



Side effects
Estrogen can cause stomach-intestinal disturbances (nausea, anorexia, diarrhea), headache and dizziness as well as at high doses vomiting. Apart from that side effects are more severe and the most important are: fenimisme effect, trombo-embolism, endometrial cancer , irregular bleeding, edema and weight increase.


Contra indications
Estrogen should not be given pda pregnant women, uterine, or cancer and cardiac patients or provide pembuluh.jangan anti pregnant pill since the closure epifise stimulation and penghentisn pertumbuhsn lengthwise.


Antiestrogen substances
Are substances that resist or reduce the effects of androgens esterogen.Dalam broad sense and progesterone are considered as substances antiesterogen.Dikensl two groups of substances with antiesterogen efficacy, namely a weak estrogen and inhibiting the enzyme aromatase.


Individual substances
Ø Esradiol: E2, Progynova, Estaderm TTS
Ø Oestrone: E1, Konyugat esterogan, Pemarin
Ø Oestriol: E3, Sinapause, Ovestine
Ø Dietilbestrol (F.I.): DES, Stilbestrol
Ø clomiphene: doxycycline, profertil
Ø Tamoksiven: nolvadex, tamofen
Ø Aminoglutetimida: orimeten
Ø Anastrozol: arimidex


ZAT-ZAT PROSTAGEN
Progesterone dalah homon other women who formed the corpus luteum, placenta (starting the third month of pregnancy) testes and kidney cortex child (male and female) under the influence of FSH / LH from Hipofise. In contrast levels of progesterone (and estrogen) levels through feedback mechanisms helped to determine the number of secretion of GnRH and Gonadotropins it.
Progesterone induces helpless phase transition from proliferative endometrium (estwerogen influence) to the phase of secretion of nutrients, so that the fertilized egg nest bias and develop into fetuses (implantation). Later on duty to maintain Progesterone pregnancy. Therefore, the Corpus luteum ceased production about 4 months into the pregnancy, the placenta began large-sampai150 at 250 mg a day saaat before delivery.


Characterization
These substances are steroida progesterone synthesis by progesterone activity, but it works spekrum much different from each other all the nutritious substances Progestagen but not all have the effect of gestagen (maintains pregnancy), inhibits ovulation or antiestrogen helpless. Even some of which have new properties, such as the effects of estrogen, although weak. Unlike substances Progesterone is active orally.


Efficacy Farmokologi
· Prostagen Securities. Ie memoersiapkan uterus for implantation of the egg by inducing secretion of the endometrial phase.
· Gestagen effect of maintaining a pregnancy, the two most obvious effect on OH progesterone, didrogesteron and alilestrenol
· Anti ovulation
· Effects of androgens
· Estrogen effect
· Securities termogen


Use


ü To prevensi abortion
ü In the anti-pregnancy pill
ü In menstrual disorders
ü In climacterium
ü In endometriose
ü In endometrial cancer / mammary


Side effects
Prostagen substances can cause sampimg effects such as nausea, drowsiness, dizziness withdrawal bleeding as well as its use dihentikan.Selain showed other effects, especially in high doses, namely:

* Securities virilization in female fetuses when used for long periods with high doses, especially since the work derifat testosterone edema due androgennya.juga remaining salt and water retention.
* Effect on the central high doses suppress all steroida CNS and can cause drowsiness, kelesuhan and depression.
* Disruption can occur, especially liver bile duct obstruction (cholestatis)



Substances anti Progestagen
These substances against progesterone by competitively blocking the road in organ resptornya destination. Abortivum used exclusively as a medical (eg fetal death) on the basis of rescission of the gestagen effects progesterone.Kehamilan progesterone suspended due to endometrial dihambat.yang is known mifrepiston (mifregyne) steroida structure, which with a single dose (600mg) effective for ca 80% when given 6 weeks after the last menstrual bila36-48 hours later followed by Prostagandin therapy, for example dinosproston (prostin E2) results up to 95%. In addition, mifrepiston 10mg (mifegyne) is used as the morning-after-pill (anti pregnant very safe and reliable.

Individual substances

1. Progesterone (FI): Progestine, progestan obtained from cattle ovaria synthesis ayau generated from kolesterol.Resorbsinya atu giosgenin quickly from the gut either, but for large FPE banya little result on average 5%. Therefore these substances are given in parentral.serbuk mikrofin the oil was absorbed through the lymph system and are not experienced in the heart FEP, the orally active (Progestan). The blood is also transported bound SHBG pda, see this substance estradriol.Dalam altered liver into several metabolites, particularly pregnandiol inactive and active hidroprogesteron these substances in the urine as sekresikan through glukoronidanya.
2. Norotisteron: norotindron,-N primolut this nortestosteron Derivatives (1967) efficacious seta suppress ovulation has its weak androgen and estrogen effects are also used antiesterogen.Banyak anti pregnant pill dalm (1-3mg N-acetate), also to delay haid.plasma-t1 / 2 was 5-14 hours. Delayed menstruation dose 5 mg 3 dd started no later than 3 days sebelun maximum period of 14 days: sesuah kur some bleeding after the withdrawal.
3. Alilestrenol: exluton, endrometril, lindiol.ovostat this nortestosteron Derivatives (1961) without the new keto group 3 active after the reformed himself into power noretisteron.Zat has estrogen, and androgen antiesterogen. Lipofil Being and good distribution in organ.plasma1/2- 17 jam.Berkat his gonadotropnya good efficacy linestrenol primarily used in anti-pregnancy pill combination of menstrual disorders and on the mini-pill dose (Mino therapy) 0.5 mg 11dd no interruptions, in combination 0,75-2,5 mg daily cyclically.
4. Desogestrel: morvelon, streroid formula morcilon This is the same substance is a product linestrenol.Zat that in the liver changed into active ketodesogrestel (1981) with the plasma t1 / 2 21 jam.Berdaya strong anti gonadronya suppress ovulation by anti-estrogen berday too strong and weak androgens . Desogrestel mainly used in anti-pregnancy pill combination of the third generation.
5. Tibolon (livial) this nortestosteron Derivatives (1988) has a double bond in lieu padaC 5-10 C 4-5.Berkhasiat progestagen, estrogen and androgen, but all rather lemah.Tidak stimulate the endometrium or mucous epithelium and does not cause vaginal bleeding penarikan.dianjurkan as monotherapy in oral climakterium.Dosis disorders 1dd 2.5 subs 3-6 months.



REFERENCES


RB HALLWORT. Prevention and treatment of post menopausal. Parm world and science 1998,20:198-205
Sambrook.PN in the treatment of post menopausal.N Engl J med 1995; 33:1495-6
HAP Polst et al. Denendicamentause aanpak van Postmenopauzale Genessem bull 1996; 30:99-107.
Grodstein F et al. Post menopausal hormone therapy and mortality N Engl J med1997; 336:1769-75.
Brinton LA et al Post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy Time for a reapraisal N Engl J med 1997; 336:1821-2.


Posted by Sholeh * Rodatul at 09:16 0 comments
Subscribe to: Posts (Atom)



Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar